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50 QA Interview Questions to Land A Job

Software Testing Career, Software Testing Help

Thursday February 7, 2019

Shortlisting the best candidate for the job of a QA tester is no easy task. There are many criteria which interviewees must be tested on before they can be selected.

This is why we have collected the top 50 questions and answers which can be asked in a QA interview.

1. What is the difference between QA and software testing?

Quality Assurance refers to the activity of monitoring the process of developing software in order to assure customers that the requirements for quality will be met. Through QA, we can identify the inconsistencies and flaws present in the development process.

2. What does Quality mean?

Quality of a product or service is determined by how well they meet the expectations and the requirements set by the customers. A good quality product must be error-free, does not have any lacking areas or any present inconsistencies. Therefore, there are some quality standards that need to be met for a product to be considered to have good quality.

3. Why is checking for quality so important in business?

The following factors are the reasons why quality is very important in business:

  • Dependency- The success of every business depends on the quality of their products and services.
  • Business Reputation- If a business provides quality services to its clients and customers, only then will it gain good reputation in the market.
  • More Transactions- If a customers are satisfied with the quality of services and products that the business provides them, they will keep making transactions with them in the future.
  • Automatic Advertisement- When the business guarantees and provides quality, the customers remain satisfied, which translates into them referring your business to other people as well.

4. What is the different between Quality Assurance and Quality Control?

QA is the process of creating, documentation, and agreeing on the guidelines that assure quality. This means that at the end of QA, we get the quality standards for the software that need to be met.

QC on the other hand is a process which focuses on identifying defects in the quality of the developed product.This means that the software is tested at various stages of its development cycle against the various requirements set by the customer.

5. What is the meaning of Testware?

Testware entails all the artifacts or materials that are used while performing tests. This includes test cases, test plans, test scripts, etc.

6. What is the difference between release and build?

Build is the software developed for the customers which is handed over to the testing team by the development team.

A release is the installable application which is officially released for the customer after it is completely tested and certified by the testing team.

A build turns into a release after is removed of any prevalent bugs and errors in it.

7. At what point should the QA activities start?

The process of quality assurance must start as soon as the development of software starts. The sooner the QA activities start, the better. This is because QA can help avoid risks that have already been specified in the specification phase.

If QA activities are delayed, they can prove to be very cost, efforts and time consuming.

8. What is a cause-effect graph?

A graph which represents all possible input domains and the outputs associated with them is called a cause-effect graph. This graph comes in use during the process of test case designing.

9. What is bug leakage and bug release?

When a software is handed over to the team of testers knowing that a particular set of errors exist in the release, it is called a bug release. The severity and priority of these errors are known to be very low, as they can be resolved before the final release of the software.

When errors or bugs which went unnoticed by the testing team, are detected by the customers or the end users after the software’s release, then it is known as a bug leakage.

Know More: Software Tester Salary in India, Canada and USA – 2019

10. What is the importance of a Bug Triage?

Bug Triage is the process of prioritizing every bug on the basis of their frequency, severity, risks, etc. It helps to evaluate and then assign the solution of these bugs in a very efficient manner.

11. How is Test Plan different from Test Strategy?

A test plan can be considered as a document which defines the objective, scope, approach, and emphasis that will go into the software testing efforts. Test plans can include the features that are to be tested, testing techniques to use, pass and fail criteria, etc.

A test strategy on the other hand can be defined as a set of guidelines which define the test designs in detail and provide instructions on how to conduct the testing process. It includes documentation formats, scope and objectives, testing processes, test deliverables, etc.

12. What is meant by data driven testing?

It is a testing methodology where test scripts are created which read test data, such as input and output values, directly from data files. The data sources can be of any type such as CSV files, ODBC files, ADO files, data pools, etc.

13. What are the different phases in the QA testing cycle?

The QA cycle has 4 phases:

  • Plan- Businesses first need to plan the processes that are related to the goals and objectives and determine what is required to be done to develop a good quality product.
  • Do- Here the development of the software and its testing is conducted.
  • Check- An important aspect of QA is to monitor the processes and methodologies that are used to check whether they meet the previously determined objectives or not.
  • Act- Finding out inconsistencies and flaws in the process and acting accordingly to improve them.
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14. What is meant by a test case?

A test case contains conditions and specifications according to which a particular software must be tested for bugs. It includes details of the acceptable inputs, conditions for execution, procedures for testing, ideal outputs, etc.

15. What constitutes a good test case?

A test case can be considered as good if it is capable of finding defects and errors. Therefore, a test case that exhibits the following characteristics can be considered as a good one:

  • Accuracy- It must exact its purpose
  • Economic- It must not include unnecessary words or steps
  • Traceable- It should be traceable to the requirements
  • Repeatable- The test case must be usable again and again
  • What are High-level and Low-level test cases?
  • High-level:The cases which cover all the core functionalities of a product are considered as high-level test cases.
  • Low-level: The cases which are related to the UI of the application are considered as low-level test cases.
  • Which are the most important functions of QA?

The important functions of QA include validation, creation of improvement plans, documentation, and technology transfers.

16. What are the common challenges faced by the testing team when automating the QA process?

The most common automation challenges that are faced in QA testing are:

  • Reusability of automation script
  • Mastering the tools for automation
  • Adapting the test cases for automation
  • Automating complex test cases
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17. What are the different types of software testing approaches?

There are many types of software testing approaches, among which the commonly used ones are:

  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Systems Testing
  • Functional testing
  • Non-Functional Testing
  • Black and White box testing
  • Regression Testing
  • Exploratory testing
  • Agile Testing
  • Ad-Hoc Testing
  • Smoke Testing
  • Alpha and Beta Testing

18. What are the stages in a Bug Life Cycle?

The bug life cycle includes all the stages through which a bug goes, throughout its lifetime. The different stages in a bug lifecycle ate as follows:

  • The bug is detected and identified, its state is ‘new’.
  • A tester approves the bug as genuine and its state becomes ‘assigned’.
  • It is checked whether the bug is in the scope or not. If it is not, then the bug is postponed for later.
  • Its state becomes ‘in-progress’ once a tester starts working on it.
  • When the bug is fixed, its state changes to ‘fixed’.
  • If it passes the final testing process, the state is set as ‘closed’.
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22. What does Bug Control mean in product development?

It is an approach which aims at developing software products which are free from bugs and errors. In this approach, efforts are made to detect and avoid errors only in the testing phase, and not after that.

23. What are functional and non-functional tests?

Functional tests are those which check the functional aspects of a software to validate their efficiency. Smoke testing, unit testing, integration testing, user acceptance, regression testing, etc. come under functional testing.

Non-functional tests are those which check the non-functional aspects of a software to validate its performance. Performance testing, load testing, stress testing, scalability, volume testing, etc. come under non-functional testing.

24. What is Agile Testing?

Agile testing is a software testing approach where continuous iteration of developing and testing the software takes place throughout the SDLC. In this approach, the requirements are gradually developed during the development lifecycle by the customers and the testers. This means, in agile testing, the coding and the testing processes are conducted simultaneously.

25. When a bug is found in production, how can you make sure that the same bug doesn’t occur again?

Whenever a bug is detected in production, the best practice is to create a test case immediately for it and to include it in the regression suite.We can also create alternate or similar test cases to include them into the suite. This way, we can prevent the occurrence of that same bug again in production.

Know More : Top 10 Software Testing Certifications 2019

26. What are un-reproducible bugs?

The following kind of bugs can be categorized as un-reproducible bugs:

  • Defects that surface due issues of low memory.
  • Errors or bugs that arise due to an addresses pointing to memory locations that do not exist.
  • Race conditions are error scenarios that occur when the time of execution of one event impacts another even executing in a sequence.
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27. How can you handle un-reproducible bugs?

To handle un-reproducible bugs, a tester can follow these steps:

  • Executing test steps that are as close to the bug description as possible.
  • Evaluating the environment of that test.
  • Examining and evaluating the results produced by the test execution.
  • Keeping the time and resource constraints under check
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28. What is the difference between a Test Driver and Stub?

A test driver is that piece of code which calls the software component that needs to go under test. Test drivers prove to be very useful when following the bottom-up testing approach.

A test stub is a dummy piece of code or program which is integrated with an application to complete the application’s functionality. Test stubs come in use when following the top-down testing approach.

29. What is meant by Entry and Exit criteria?

Entry Criteria- The process which needs to be run when the testing begins. It includes:

  • Software Requirement Specification (SRS)
  • Functional Requirement Specification (FRS)
  • Test cases
  • Use cases
  • Test plans

Exit Criteria- It tells when a product is completely testing and when it should be formally released. It includes:

  • Metrics
  • Test Summary Reports
  • Defect Analysis Report

30. What are the roles of White and Black box testing?

Black box testing approach does not require the tester to have knowledge of the internal code and structure of the software. The tests in this approach are based of the software’s functionalities and requirements.

White box testing on the other hand requires the testers to test the internal designs, implementation and structure of the software. Therefore, in this approach, the tests are concentrated on path coverage, statement coverage, and branch coverage.

31. What is the aim of smoke testing?

Smoke testing is done to confirm the basic functionalities of a product. Through smoke testing, you can identify the most basic test cases to execute.

32. Why is sanity testing used?

Through sanity testing, you can ensure whether a software runs without the occurrences of any logical errors or not. It helps to avoid the wastage of cost and time involved in testing when the entire build fails.

33. What is the difference between negative and positive testing?

In negative testing, the software is validated by evaluating how it behaves when invalid inputs are provided to it. Therefore, it is conducted by keeping a negative point of view to check whether the software behaves as expected when negative input are provided.

In positive testing however, the software is tested by providing positive inputs to it and checking how whether the results match with the expected results or not.

34. How is verification different from validation?

Verification is the process of thoroughly evaluating the software in the development phase to check whether it meets the specified requirements or not. It is done to make sure that the software is capable of meeting the requirements. Activities like meetings, reviews, and inspection are involved in verification.

Validation is the process of thoroughly evaluating the software after it has been developed completely to make sure that it meets the customer requirements and expectations. Activities such as black and white box testing are involved in validation.

35. What is the cause effect graph?

A cause effect graph is the graphical representation of all the inputs and their respective output effects that can be used while designing test cases.

36. What is meant by Quality Audit?

It is a process where systematic examination of a software is conducted by an audit team or by a quality auditor. Here, tests related to effectiveness of procedures adopted in quality control are performed. It is done after all tasks related with the software are completed.

37. Which Two Levels commonly come under Quality Certification?

  • Optimization
  • Repeatable sequences

38. Which factors must be given higher importance in the development of a product in QA?

Testers must first concentrate on planning before starting to work on any software. Adopting and integrating the latest technologies in processes is also very important. Attention must also be focused on identifying the factors on which the software is heavily dependent.

Sometimes quality can be assured simply by paying close attention to the development process of the software. Testing also plays an important role in assuring the efficiency and quality of a software.

39. Why is Quality Assurance a ‘proactive approach’?

QA testing takes place during the development process and starts as soon as the software goes into development. This is why quality assurance is considered as a proactive approach.

Know More: Top 50 Selenium Interview Question that will help you land a Job

40. How is QA defined in the ISO 9000, Clause 3.2.11?

Quality assurance is defined as that aspect of quality management that deals with assuring the customers that their set requirements for the software’s quality will be fulfilled.

41. How to know if software specifications have been met or not?

By using the traceability matrix tool, we can map requirements to test cases. When all test cases in the matrix are executed successfully, it will mean that the code meets all software specifications.

42. What is a traceability matrix?

It is a document which captures all the requirements that have been proposed by the client and their traceability. It means that a traceability matrix is a document which traces and maps the test cases and the user requirements.

43. Which QA practices can be considered as the best?

There are many good practices for QA, among which the best are:

  • Thoroughly evaluating the selected release criteria
  • Automating testing for highly sensitive areas
  • Creating a testing environment which is robust
  • Simulating final outcomes for evaluation
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44. What is Recovery Testing?

Recovery testing is conducted to recover the software from any unexpected or expected events so as to prevent loss of functionalities and data. Events can include unexpected communication loss, shortage in the disk space, etc.

45. Which are the key factors of a test plan?

A test plan contains the following key factors:

  • Test scope
  • Objectives
  • The environment
  • Testing the frame
  • Risk factors
  • Deliverables
  • Reasons for testing
  • Entry and exit criteria

46. What is meant by QA automation?

It is the process of automating as many parts of the testing process as possible so as to make QA testing more accurate, efficient, and quick.QA automation can be done by using various automation tools.

  • Name a few QA automation tools.
  • Selenium- It is an open source automation tool which is the most widely used tool for QA.
  • UTF (Unified Functional testing) – It is an automation tool by SmartBear Software. A few significant features of this tool include Scripted Testing,Test Visualizers, and GUI Testing.
  • TestingWhiz- It is a QA automation tool by Cygnet Infotech which provides code-less scripting. Some of its features include Integration with Test Management Tools, record and Playback test frameworks,and Keyword Driven Testing.

47. How is retesting different from regression testing?

Retesting is conducted to check whether the errors have been successfully removed or not, while regression testing is conducted to check the impact that error fixes have on other software functionalities.

48. What is meant by MR?

MR or Modification Request can also be called as a Defect report. It is a document which is created to report all the errors and defects in the software and any suggestions which can be taken into account.

49. How are validation activities conducted?

Following techniques are used to conduct validation activities:

  • Hiring third-party independent people for validation
  • Assigning team members who are not involved in the verification activities
  • Getting the software independently evaluated

50. Which types of documents are created during software QA?

The following documents are created during the software quality assurance process:

  • Requirement document
  • Test cases and Test plans
  • Test Metrics
  • User profiles
  • Test log
  • Transaction Mix
  • Task distribution flow chart
  • Test incident report
  • Test summary report

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