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What is Statement Coverage Testing?

September 27th, 2023
What is Statement Coverage Testing?

In this enlightening blog, we’re delving deep into the fascinating world of code analysis through statement coverage testing. From dissecting the significance of statement coverage testing to uncovering its practical applications, it’s advantages, disadvantages along with relevant examples.

We’ll unravel how this technique helps ensure every line of code is scrutinized and put to the test. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or a curious tech enthusiast, this blog promises valuable insights into enhancing code quality and reliability.

Get ready to sharpen your testing arsenal and elevate your software craftsmanship!

What is Statement Coverage Testing?

A fundamental method of software testing called “statement coverage testing” makes sure that every statement in a piece of code is run at least once in order to gauge how thorough the testing was. This method offers useful insights into how thoroughly a program’s source code has been checked by monitoring the execution of each line of code.

How to Measure Statement Coverage?

When comparing the number of executed statements to the total number of statements in the code, statement coverage is calculated. Statement coverage is calculated as follows:

Statement Coverage is calculated as follows: (Number of Executed Statements / Total Statements) x 100%

Since this evaluation is given as a percentage, testers can determine what fraction of the code has really been used during testing.

Suppose we have a code snippet with 10 statements, and during testing, 7 of these statements are executed.

def calculate_average(numbers):
total = 0
count = 0
for num in numbers:
total += num
count += 1
if count > 0:
average = total / count
average = 0
return average

In this case:

Number of Executed Statements: 7
Total Number of Statements: 10
Using the formula for statement coverage:

Statement Coverage = (Number of Executed Statements / Total Number of Statements) * 100%
Statement Coverage = (7 / 10) * 100% = 70%

Therefore, this code snippet’s statement coverage is 70%. This shows that during testing, 70% of the code’s statements were carried out.

To ensure a more thorough testing of the software, it’s critical to aim for higher statement coverage. In order to thoroughly evaluate the quality of the code, additional coverage metrics like branch coverage and path coverage are also essential.

Achieving 100% statement coverage, however, does not guarantee that all scenarios have been tested.

Example of Statement Coverage Testing:

Let’s consider a simple code snippet to illustrate statement coverage:

def calculate_sum(a, b):

    if a > b:

        result = a + b


        result = a – b

    return result

Suppose we have a test suite with two test cases:

  1. calculate_sum(5, 3)
  2. calculate_sum(3, 5)

Both the ‘if ‘ and ‘else’ branches are executed when these test cases are applied to the function, covering all the code statements. As a result, all statements in the code have been tested, as shown by the 100% statement coverage.

Statement coverage testing makes ensuring that no lines of code are left untested and adds to the software’s overall stability.

It’s crucial to remember, though, that while it offers a basic level of coverage assessment, having high statement coverage doesn’t imply that there won’t be any errors or rigorous testing.

For a more thorough evaluation of code quality, other methods like branch coverage and path coverage may be required.

Advantages and disadvantages of statement coverage testing

Statement Coverage Testing Benefits/Advantages

Detailed Code Inspection:

Statement Coverage Testing makes sure that each line of code is run at least once during testing.

This facilitates the discovery of any untested code segments and guarantees a more thorough evaluation of the product.

Consider a financial application where testing statement coverage reveals that a certain calculation module has not been tested, requiring further testing to cover it.

Quick Dead Code Detection:

By immediately identifying dead or inaccessible code, statement coverage enables engineers to cut out superfluous sections.

For instance, statement coverage analysis can indicate the redundancy of a portion of code if it is left undisturbed during testing for an old feature.

Basic quality indicator:

High statement coverage indicates that a significant percentage of the code has been used during testing, according to the basic quality indicator.

It does demonstrate a level of testing rigor, but it does not ensure software that is bug-free. Achieving 90% statement coverage, for instance, demonstrates a strong testing effort within the software.

Statement Coverage Testing Disadvantages

Concentrate on Quantity Rather than Quality:

Statement coverage assesses code execution but not testing quality. With superficial tests that don’t account for many circumstances, a high coverage percentage may be achieved.

For instance, testing a login system can cover all of the code lines but exclude important checks for invalid passwords.

Ignores Branches and Logic:

When determining statement coverage, conditional structures like if and else statements are ignored.

This could result in inadequate testing of logical assumptions. A software might, for instance, test the “if” portion of an if-else statement but fail to test the “else” portion.

False High Coverage:

Achieving high statement coverage does not imply that the application will be bug-free.

Despite extensive testing, some edge situations or uncommon events might still not be tested.

For instance, a scheduling tool may have excellent statement coverage yet neglect to take into account changes in daylight saving time.

Inability to Capture Input Context:

Statement coverage is unable to capture the context of the input values utilized during testing.

This implies that it might ignore particular inputs that result in particular behavior.

For example, evaluating a shopping cart system might be successful if edge circumstances like negative amounts or large discounts are not taken into account.

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