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What is CMMI? (Capability Maturity Model Integration)

Process

Thursday September 5, 2019

What is CMMI?

The CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) is a procedure and, software developmental model. It assists in organizing and streamlining the software development process. It advances and boosts the development process and reduces threats in software and system.

Established by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, It was developed as a process enhancement tool for software development. It is now managed by the CMMI Institute.

CMMI analyses your existing processes and classifies their flaws and strengths. In the next steps, measures are taken to convert the weaknesses into strength.

CMMI is both a process model and a behavioral model. It can be used to manage the logistics of refining performance by creating determinate standards; it can also develop a structure for boosting prolific and effective behavior throughout the system.

To conclude, the CMMI model is a pool of dependable best practices that helps in improving quality, standards, and efficiency of the software development processes. It includes various process areas like project planning, configuration management, etc.

Why is the Capability Maturity Model Integration CMMI Model important?

CMMI model is being widely used by organizations to streamline and enhance their software development process. It can also ensure that an organization will be able to complete the software within the given timelines and the allocated resources.

Being developed in the US defence sector, it is being widely trusted and used by organizations worldwide. Here are few benefits of Capability Maturity Model Integration:

  • Consistency

CMMI radically enhances project predictability and consistency. It enhances the consistency of the complete process and hence increasing the steadiness and reliability of the project.

  • Cost Saving

CMMI assists in early and more effective error detection and hence reduces the cost of re-work considerably. It also reduces the cost burden because of schedule variability. It assists in enhanced cost predictability. Overall CMMI model plays a major role in cost saving in the software development process.

  • Self-Improvement

Organizations using CMMI are easily able to differentiate themselves by naturally improving process management and are becoming more competitive. Adopting CMMI is gradually becoming a benchmark for improved and enhanced process management.

  • Market demand

CMMI offers a set of industries best practices that enable the teams to reap the maximum benefit of it. Organizations are using it to best meet their customer’s demands. Also, the growing popularity of the process has given it a competitive edge and had established it as a benchmark for more efficient and streamlined software development.

  • Performance demand

CMMI helps in improving the existing organizational processes and standards by analyzing the faults in them and overcoming them. Hence, CMMI can largely increase the performance of the processes. With extensive competition and high-performance demand, CMMI is gradually becoming a hot favorite of the software organizations worldwide.

  • Process improvement

CMMI consists of a set of best practices or process management. Leveraging CMMI ensure process improvement. It includes 25 different process areas to provide an all-inclusive business process enhancement solution. The process areas in CMMI include 2 kinds of goals, 2 practices, and a large amount of useful data.

Evolution of CMMI

 

Evolution of CMMI

The CMMI was made to pool various business maturity models into a single structure. It was created from the Software CMM model that was made between 1987 and 1997. The first version of CMMI, CMMI Version 1.1 was launched in 2002, trailed by CMMI Version 1.2 in 2006 and CMMI Version 1.3 in 2010; The present version V2.0 was released in March 2018.

Initially, CMMI was custom-made for software engineering, but the latest version of CMMI is more abstract and generalized. It can now be applied to software, hardware, and service development across all industries.

Every new version of CMMI is easier to use, integrate and install. It is also designed to be more cost-effective. It focuses on quality over quantity. It helps to set the benchmarks and classify the issues and minimize the risks.

How to successfully implement CMMI?

Implementing anything new to the system can be quite challenging, and the same goes with the implementation of CMMI. Here are a few things to remember while implementing CMMI:

  • Implement CMMI® for the right reasons.

Never let the sole aim of implementing CMMI be making operations more efficient, effective, and profitable. Let your organization implement the CMMI® to constantly improve the processes.

  • Have realistic goals.

Implementing CMMI and them moving from one maturity level to another is a very time-consuming process. Moving from one maturity level to another maturity level may take from 12 to 18 months. The teams have to be very patient and have to set realistic goals keeping in the mind the progress of the CMMI process.

  • Demonstrate senior management full support.

Ensure you implement CMMI with the full support of the senior management. In the absence of your senior management’s support, your efforts can be scraped.

  • Know the reasons for and importance for implementing CMMI.

You should have clarity on why do you want to implement the CMMI and what is important. You should also be well prepared to convey the same to your peers and senior management.

  • Train everyone about CMMI.

Train the team about the CMMI and explain to them how will affect their work and also tell them about their job and role keeping in mind the new process methodology.

  • Give the apt person the responsibility of CMMI Implementation.

Always ensure that you assign the right person for the implementation of CMMI. Never assign any person on CMMI without considering his abilities, just because he has been on the bench for long. On the contrary, also avoid people who are already overburdened with work to implement CMMI process.

  • Have two process enhancement groups.

It is always a better option to appoint two process group one for CMMI, one group consisting of the managers from each department and projects and the other executive group constituting the senior management.

  • Define the existing company’s standing.

Analyse the current working processes of your organization and define where they stand in the CMMI process. This activity is very important to be carried out before the CMMI implementation.

  • Document your organization’s processes.

The next important thing is to document the gap analysis that you have defined in the previous step.

  • Hire a CMMI Institute certified lead to help you in CMMI implementation: 

CMMI is an important process for your organization and hence should not be treated lightly. Ensure that you employ a CMMI certified professional for your CMMI implementation and management.

SCAMPI or Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement

Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement is a CMMI endorsed assessment method that is used by CMMI society. This process is clearly defined in the SCAMPI Method Definition Document, inside the CMMI appraisal reference documents. It is divided into 3 classes: Class A, B and C.

  • SCAMPI A:The most widely used appraisal method is SCAMPI Ait is generally used after multiple processes have been executed. SCAMPI A is used to set benchmarks for organizations and provides official ratings. It is carried out a by an on-site certified lead appraiser.
  • SCAMPI B:It is used to discover a target CMMI maturity level and is less official than SCAMPI A. It is also used to forecast success for evaluated practices and to evaluate where business stands in the maturity process does.
  • SCAMPI C:SCAMPI C is smaller, suppler and cheaper than SCAMPI A or B. It evaluates a business’s established practices and figures out how to align them with CMMI practices. It can address managerial issues or smaller process. It is riskier than SCAMPI A and B but is more cost-effective.

CMMI Models

CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV) – Product and service development

CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC) – Service establishment, management, and delivery

CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ) – Product and service acquisition

CMMI Maturity Levels

CMMI Maturity Levels

The CMMI model is divided into five maturity levels. The organization implementing CMMI strives to reach level 5. After reaching level 5 organizations have to focus on maintenance and constant enhancements.  However, maturity rating are awarded only from level 2

The five maturity levels of CMMI are:

1. Initial Level:

At this level of CMMI, the processes are rather unpredictable and reactive. These are the levels that consume extra time to complete the work. At this level, the organization is at its worst with an unpredictable environment and increased chances of risks and incompetence.

2. Managed:

The processes have already passed level one and are now better planned, performed, measured and controlled but still is not free from issues and there are lot many issues to address.

CMMI Maturity Level 2 – Managed

REQM – Requirements Management

PP – Project Planning

CM – Configuration Management

MA – Measurement and Analysis

PPQA – Process and Product Quality Assurance

PMC – Project Monitoring and Control

SAM – Supplier Agreement Management

3. Defined:

By now the organizations are more pre-emptive than responsive. There’s a set of “organization-wide standards” to “provide guidance across projects, programs and portfolios.” By now organizations understand their shortcomings and way to deal with them to improve their processes

CMMI Maturity Level 3 – Defined

RD – Requirements Development

DAR – Decision Analysis and Resolution

OPF – Organizational Process Focus

IPM – Integrated Project Management +IPPD

OT – Organizational Training

OPD – Organizational Process Definition +IPPD

PI – Product Integration

RSKM – Risk Management

VAL – Validation

TS – Technical Solution

VER – Verification

4. Quantitatively Managed:

The organization at this level reaches a high maturity level where it is in a stage to determine predictable processes based on stakeholders requirements. The processes are more managed, dignified and precise. The organization is now ahead of threats and follows the data-driven approach for process deficiencies.

CMMI Maturity Level 4 – Quantitatively Managed

OPP – Organizational Process Performance

QPM – Quantitative Project Management

5. Optimizing:

Now the organization is at a stage of stability and flexibility. Now the organization is constantly heading towards improvement and retorting opportunities. At level 5 or optimizing level of CMMI, the organization follows “agility and innovation,” in an anticipated environment.

CMMI Maturity Level 5 – Optimizing

OID – Organizational Innovation and Deployment

CAR – Causal Analysis and Resolution

When organizations enter Levels 4 and 5, they enter a high maturity level, constantly growing, acclimatizing and developing to meet the needs of investors and clients.” Finally, they are on the verge of attaining the goals of CMMI.

CMMI In software Testing

Why do we need CMMI for software testing?

CMMI can have many added benefits in software testing if it is implemented properly. Here are some of the benefits of CMMI for software testing:

  • CMMI enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of various test activities.
  • CMMI helps to align testing activities with managerial primacies and various other processes.
  • Improves the value of the testing for the organization.
  • CMMI enhances ROI
  • It results in the upgraded success of the organization.
  • CMMI is friendly with ISO Standards, 6-Sigma and ITIL and other related methodologies.
  • CMMI is always improving and evolving.

How to implement CMMI in the testing process?

The implementation of CMMI to the testing process is very limited. But recently software testing companies have discovered that they can implement CMMI to their testing process to meet the crunched deadlines and to deliver the better-tested product.

Result?

  • Better quality of deliverables.
  • Enhanced customer satisfaction.
  • Assists in cost-saving.
  • Assures stability and high performance of the deliverables.

Let us now learn how we can implement CMMI to testing process:

  • Pick up the trained staff members
  • Create groups for the testing process
  • Refer to CMMI consultants
  • Implement testing processes
  • Pick the apt tools
  • Implement the CMMI model to the testing process
  • Gather client’s feedbacks
  • Enhance the implemented practices.

Test management using CMMI

  • Identify validation criteria for the integration environment
  • Create an integration environment
  • Create verification environment
  • Define test methods

CMMI tools

There are various CMMI tools available in the market. Choice of these tools depends on the business’s needs. During the Maturity level 2 or 3, you can take the help of your CMMI consultant to design customized tools. You might have to consider the following tools:

  • Bug tracker
  • Project and document management
  • Requirement and design management
  • Metrics tools
  • Estimation
  • Integration application
  • Decision and analysis tools

Conclusion:

CMMI is a set of best practices that helps in streamlining the processes. Developed in Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for the U.S. military purposes, the process is widely trusted for its efficiency. It is being used as a benchmark for highly efficient organizations.

it has taken a competitive edge and organizations are largely adapting this model to prove their worth over the others. No doubt CMMI has high capability to streamline the process, to make them more efficient and cost-effective and less time-consuming. But, it should be ensured that CMMI practices are implemented correctly to get maximum benefits out of it.

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